Birds by Bertrando Campos


Fork-tailed Woodnymph

These solitary hummingbirds spend their time in humid forests, tall second growth, shaded plantations, or in gardens. They usually forage at low flowers, especially from plants in the Rubiaceae genus. While males sometimes defend patches of flowers and act aggressively, females tend to be less territorial and either trapline or steal nectar from the floral territories of other hummingbirds. Males are notably dark in color and have forked tails. Females are light gray below.

Black Jacobin

The Black Jacobin is a striking black and white endemic of woodland habitats from eastern Brazil south to northeast Argentina in a fairly narrow band along the coast. Its sister species, the White-necked Jacobin (Florisuga mellivora), is the more colorful member of the genus, and the Black Jacobin appears to have converted all green or violet plumage on its sister species to black, making it quite conspicuous in flight. It feeds on the nectar of various native and introduced shrubs and trees and will occasionally occur in congregations of 50 or more individuals around particularly rich nectar resources.

Swallow-tailed Hummingbird

The Swallow-tailed Hummingbird is a large, spectacular denizen of open savanna-like vegetation in the southern and northeastern tropics of South America. It is easily recognizable as a large violet and green hummingbird with an impressive long, deeply forked tail. It is readily seen in defense of dense nectar resources such as those found on flowering trees, but it will also feed on insects in the air. It is divided into five subspecies, four of which occur in the southern disjunct portion of the specie’s range and often intergrade.

Swallow-tailed Hummingbird

The Swallow-tailed Hummingbird is a large, spectacular denizen of open savanna-like vegetation in the southern and northeastern tropics of South America. It is easily recognizable as a large violet and green hummingbird with an impressive long, deeply forked tail. It is readily seen in defense of dense nectar resources such as those found on flowering trees, but it will also feed on insects in the air. It is divided into five subspecies, four of which occur in the southern disjunct portion of the specie’s range and often intergrade.

White-vented Violetear

Beija-flor-de-orelha-violeta. These medium-sized hummingbirds inhabit scrub, grasslands, savanna, and gorges surrounded by bushes. They are most common in upland habitat between 1000-1500 meters, but are present at a wide range of elevations. In Brazil, birds living at higher elevations migrate to the lowlands during the fall. White-vented Violetears frequently perch in low vegetation near rich flower areas and call steadily. Should another hummingbird try to visit these flowers, a White-Vented Violetear would immediately chase it away. These violetears often begin foraging earlier in the morning than do other hummers. Females construct the nest, incubate eggs, and raise nestlings without help from males.

Frilled Coquette

6,5 cm, 3g. The ornate green and white fanning cheek feathers set the male Frilled Coquette apart from most hummingbirds. Male Frilled Coquettes boast a long, rufous crest and both sexes have a light rump band. Common throughout their range, this species is a denizen of a variety of habitats in central eastern Brazil—humid forest edges, secondary growth, coffee plantations, and cerrado. They feed on both arthropods and nectar and may exhibit seasonal movements after the breeding and flowering seasons. In interactions with larger hummingbirds, Frilled Coquettes are considered subordinate.

Horned Sungem

Horned Sungem weighs about 2g and measures 8cm long. The sole member of the genus Heliactin, the slender-bodied Horned Sungem is a remarkable hummingbird, well worthy of such an evocative name. While females are primarily green above with clean white underparts, and long central rectrices, males are dazzlingly adorned with a dark blue crown, black throat and upper breast, and tiny red, blue and gold ‘horns’, as well as also possessing elongated central tail feathers. In terms of its distribution, the species is found extremely locally north of the Amazon, in southern Suriname, as well as in the savannas of Amapá, in far northeast Brazil, but then much more continuously (albeit increasingly less so due to habitat destruction) across the Brazilian interior to eastern Bolivia. It favors native cerrado vegetation and is found to at least 1000 m in elevation. Like many hummingbirds, the Horned Sungem appears to perform local movements, at least in parts of its range, in response to flowering events, although elsewhere the species’ populations are seemingly more sedentary.

Saw-billed Hermit

Beija-flor-rajado (Ramphodon naevius). The Saw-billed Hermit is a large, boldly patterned hermit and is one of the three heaviest hermits. It is endemic to the understory of humid forest in southeast Brazil and employ’s a trap-line foraging strategy feeding on the nectar of long-tubed flowers with a steady blooming rate. Though a hermit, and thus fairly drab for a hummingbird, it is boldly patterned with a striking rufous cheek patch contrasting with a dark mask and coarsely streaked underparts, in its range, it is unlikely to be cause confusion.

Scale-throated Hermit

Rabo-branco-de-garganta-rajada (Phaethornis eurynome). This comparatively large hummingbird, which is endemic to the Atlantic Forest biome, is easily identified within its range by virtue of it being the only larger, predominantly green and gray-plumaged hermit, with a rather long, decurved, bill. The Scale-throated Hermit inhabits the understory of both lowland and highland forests, as well as old second growth, from southeast Brazil (as far north as southern Bahia) to eastern Paraguay and northeast Argentina, and is recorded at 2250 m at least. It feeds, like most hermit hummingbirds, by trap-lining, although some arthropods are also taken, and the species will periodically also visit feeders to take ‘artificial’ nectar. This hermit is tolerably common in most parts of its range.

Horned Sungem

Horned Sungem weighs about 2g and measures 8cm long. The sole member of the genus Heliactin, the slender-bodied Horned Sungem is a remarkable hummingbird, well worthy of such an evocative name. While females are primarily green above with clean white underparts, and long central rectrices, males are dazzlingly adorned with a dark blue crown, black throat and upper breast, and tiny red, blue and gold ‘horns’, as well as also possessing elongated central tail feathers. In terms of its distribution, the species is found extremely locally north of the Amazon, in southern Suriname, as well as in the savannas of Amapá, in far northeast Brazil, but then much more continuously (albeit increasingly less so due to habitat destruction) across the Brazilian interior to eastern Bolivia. It favors native cerrado vegetation and is found to at least 1000 m in elevation. Like many hummingbirds, the Horned Sungem appears to perform local movements, at least in parts of its range, in response to flowering events, although elsewhere the species’ populations are seemingly more sedentary.

White-vented Violetear

These medium-sized hummingbirds inhabit scrub, grasslands, savanna, and gorges surrounded by bushes. They are most common in upland habitat between 1000-1500 meters, but are present at a wide range of elevations. In Brazil, birds living at higher elevations migrate to the lowlands during the fall. White-vented Violetears frequently perch in low vegetation near rich flower areas and call steadily. Should another hummingbird try to visit these flowers, a White-Vented Violetear would immediately chase it away. These violetears often begin foraging earlier in the morning than do other hummers. Females construct the nest, incubate eggs, and raise nestlings without help from males.

White-vented Violetear

These medium-sized hummingbirds inhabit scrub, grasslands, savanna, and gorges surrounded by bushes. They are most common in upland habitat between 1000-1500 meters, but are present at a wide range of elevations. In Brazil, birds living at higher elevations migrate to the lowlands during the fall. White-vented Violetears frequently perch in low vegetation near rich flower areas and call steadily. Should another hummingbird try to visit these flowers, a White-Vented Violetear would immediately chase it away. These violetears often begin foraging earlier in the morning than do other hummers. Females construct the nest, incubate eggs, and raise nestlings without help from males.

White-vented Violetear

These medium-sized hummingbirds inhabit scrub, grasslands, savanna, and gorges surrounded by bushes. They are most common in upland habitat between 1000-1500 meters, but are present at a wide range of elevations. In Brazil, birds living at higher elevations migrate to the lowlands during the fall. White-vented Violetears frequently perch in low vegetation near rich flower areas and call steadily. Should another hummingbird try to visit these flowers, a White-Vented Violetear would immediately chase it away. These violetears often begin foraging earlier in the morning than do other hummers. Females construct the nest, incubate eggs, and raise nestlings without help from males.

Glittering-throated Emerald

Glittering-throated Emeralds frequent the borders of dry, humid, and gallery forests, and also inhabit second growth, open woodlands, and gardens. They feed on nectar from flowering plants of all heights, and even gather nectar from a perch. These aggressive emeralds breed throughout most of the year and have an insect-like song.

Sapphire-spangled Emerald

Sapphire-spangled Emeralds frequent rainforest edges, humid or gallery forests, second growth, clearings, orchards, and gardens. Males defend flower territories and are rather diverse in their flower preferences. These emeralds can be difficult to identify in the field: they are mostly olive-green above with whitish middle and lower underparts. In favorable lighting, their throats sparkle with violet-blue.

Fork-tailed Woodnymph

These solitary hummingbirds spend their time in humid forests, tall second growth, shaded plantations, or in gardens. They usually forage at low flowers, especially from plants in the Rubiaceae genus. While males sometimes defend patches of flowers and act aggressively, females tend to be less territorial and either trapline or steal nectar from the floral territories of other hummingbirds. Males are notably dark in color and have forked tails. Females are light gray below.

Fork-tailed Woodnymph (Thalurania furcata)

These solitary hummingbirds spend their time in humid forests, tall second growth, shaded plantations, or in gardens. They usually forage at low flowers, especially from plants in the Rubiaceae genus. While males sometimes defend patches of flowers and act aggressively, females tend to be less territorial and either trapline or steal nectar from the floral territories of other hummingbirds. Males are notably dark in color and have forked tails. Females are light gray below.

Frilled Coquette (Lophornis magnificus)

The ornate green and white fanning cheek feathers set the male Frilled Coquette apart from most hummingbirds. It might only be confused with the Dot-eared Coquette (Lophornis gouldii) which has a more dot-like pattern on its cheek feathers. Male Frilled Coquettes boast a long, rufous crest and both sexes have a light rump band. Common throughout their range, this species is a denizen of a variety of habitats in central eastern Brazil—humid forest edges, secondary growth, coffee plantations, and cerrado. They feed on both arthropods and nectar and may exhibit seasonal movements after the breeding and flowering seasons. In interactions with larger hummingbirds, Frilled Coquettes are considered subordinate.

Female Brazilian Ruby (Clytolaema rubricauda)

Although sometimes placed in the genus Heliodoxa, with the brilliants, the Brazilian Ruby is more typically treated as the sole member of a monotypic genus, Clytolaema, one of a great many hummingbird genera described by John Gould. As its vernacular name suggests, this species is endemic to Brazil, where it generally occurs from Minas Gerais south to Rio Grande do Sul, and it occurs in wooded areas of all types in the Atlantic Forest region, to at least 2000 m. It regularly visits feeders in small numbers. Both sexes of this hummingbird are attractive and distinctive. Males are primarily clad in deep green, with a brilliant deep red throat patch, a small but obvious white postocular spot, browner wings, and a bright red tail, while females share the spot behind the eye and the tail color of the male, but are otherwise rich orange over the entire underparts and on the rump. [http://neotropical.birds.cornell.edu/portal/species/overview?p_p_spp=259736].

Female Amethyst Woodstar Hummingbird

The most widely distributed of its genus, the Amethyst Woodstar is found in a great variety of habitats throughout its circum-Amazonian distribution. The male is mainly bronzy green above with a prominently forked tail, white sides to the rump, and a striking amethyst-colored throat, bordered by a white breast band. The female has a green-spotted white throat, orange-rufous sides to the underparts, and a narrow white line behind the eye. The Amethyst Woodstar has been recorded taking the nectar of a large number of plant species, and at least occasionally the species hawks insects in flight. This woodstar is probably largely sedentary, but local movements potentially occur, though have yet to be proven. [http://neotropical.birds.cornell.edu/portal/species/overview?p_p_spp=277016].

Glittering-throated Emerald (Amazilia fimbriata)

Glittering-throated Emeralds frequent the borders of dry, humid, and gallery forests, and also inhabit second growth, open woodlands, and gardens. They feed on nectar from flowering plants of all heights, and even gather nectar from a perch. These aggressive emeralds breed throughout most of the year and have an insect-like song.

Glittering-throated Emerald (Amazilia fimbriata)

Despite its name, the throat of the Glittering-throated Emerald is not very helpful in its identification. Overall, this emerald is fairly nondescript, but the area of white on the central and lower underparts is fairly unique. Glittering-throated Emeralds frequent the borders of dry, humid, and gallery forests, and also inhabit second growth, open woodlands, and gardens. They feed on nectar from flowering plants of all heights, and even gather nectar from a perch. These aggressive emeralds breed throughout most of the year and have an insect-like song. The southeastern Brazilian subspecies (P. f. tephrocephala) is perhaps the most mobile and migrates southward along the Atlantic coast. [http://neotropical.birds.cornell.edu/portal/species/overview?p_p_spp=253496].

Blue-tufted Starthroat (Heliomaster furcifer)

The center of the Blue-tufted Starthroat’s distribution is in south-central South America, in Bolivia, Paraguay, northern Argentina, and southern Brazil, with apparently highly anomalous records in southeast Colombia and eastern Ecuador. Fully adult males are unmistakable birds; green above, with a crimson throat patch, and deep blue below with elongated neck feathers. The tail is forked and the straight bill unusually long. Females share the long bill and largely green upperparts, but are largely off-white below, with a coppery sheen to the neck. The Blue-tufted Starthroat prefers grasslands and lightly wooded areas, including forest borders, and typically assumes a rather prominent perch, sometimes high above the ground. [Source: http://neotropical.birds.cornell.edu/portal/species/overview?p_p_spp=276056].

Ruby-topaz Hummingbird (Chrysolampis mosquitus)

The Ruby-topaz Hummingbird is a much coveted gem of circum-Amazonian savanna habitats from Colombia east through Venezuela, the Guianas, south through Brazil and west to eastern Bolivia. It is a very small hummingbird, but with a brilliant ruby crown and nape, iridescent gold throat and breast and bright orange tail and is luckily, quite common throughout its range. It forages for the nectar of flowering shrubs from the understory to tree tops in open country but also in cultivated areas and gardens.

Male Horned Sungem (Heliactin bilophus)

This photo of the male is not very good as the female I posted yesterday, but I'm posting for you to see how it is spectacular. Thank you all for support and kind comments. Horned Sungem weighs about 2g and measures 8cm long. The sole member of the genus Heliactin, the slender-bodied Horned Sungem is a remarkable hummingbird, well worthy of such an evocative name. While females are primarily green above with clean white underparts, and long central rectrices, males are dazzlingly adorned with a dark blue crown, black throat and upper breast, and tiny red, blue and gold ‘horns’, as well as also possessing elongated central tail feathers. In terms of its distribution, the species is found extremely locally north of the Amazon, in southern Suriname, as well as in the savannas of Amapá, in far northeast Brazil, but then much more continuously (albeit increasingly less so due to habitat destruction) across the Brazilian interior to eastern Bolivia. It favors native cerrado vegetation and is found to at least 1000 m in elevation. Like many hummingbirds, the Horned Sungem appears to perform local movements, at least in parts of its range, in response to flowering events, although elsewhere the species’ populations are seemingly more sedentary.

Female Horned Sungem (Heliactin bilophus)

Horned Sungem weighs about 2g and measures 8cm long. The sole member of the genus Heliactin, the slender-bodied Horned Sungem is a remarkable hummingbird, well worthy of such an evocative name. While females are primarily green above with clean white underparts, and long central rectrices, males are dazzlingly adorned with a dark blue crown, black throat and upper breast, and tiny red, blue and gold ‘horns’, as well as also possessing elongated central tail feathers. In terms of its distribution, the species is found extremely locally north of the Amazon, in southern Suriname, as well as in the savannas of Amapá, in far northeast Brazil, but then much more continuously (albeit increasingly less so due to habitat destruction) across the Brazilian interior to eastern Bolivia. It favors native cerrado vegetation and is found to at least 1000 m in elevation. Like many hummingbirds, the Horned Sungem appears to perform local movements, at least in parts of its range, in response to flowering events, although elsewhere the species’ populations are seemingly more sedentary.

White-chinned Sapphire (Hylocharis cyanus)

White-chinned Sapphires live in humid or riparian woodlands, edges of tropical lowland evergreen forests, and clearings with trees. In southeastern Brazil and in the Amazon, they even inhabit white sand forests and restinga habitats. When foraging for nectar, they hover at flowers of various heights and defend flowers in large canopy trees where the often compete with other hummingbirds. They also eat spiders, beetles, and flies. These hummingbirds breed year-round and males often sing from individual song perches. Their high-pitched, squeaky song is reminiscent of an insect. At times, White-chinned Sapphires have notable population movements with birds suddenly absent from areas typically with a high number of individuals.

White-vented Violetear (Colibri serrirostris)

These medium-sized hummingbirds inhabit scrub, grasslands, savanna, and gorges surrounded by bushes. They are most common in upland habitat between 1000-1500 meters, but are present at a wide range of elevations. In Brazil, birds living at higher elevations migrate to the lowlands during the fall. White-vented Violetears frequently perch in low vegetation near rich flower areas and call steadily. Should another hummingbird try to visit these flowers, a White-Vented Violetear would immediately chase it away. These violetears often begin foraging earlier in the morning than do other hummers. Females construct the nest, incubate eggs, and raise nestlings without help from males.

Glittering-throated Emerald (Amazilia fimbriata)

Glittering-throated Emeralds frequent the borders of dry, humid, and gallery forests, and also inhabit second growth, open woodlands, and gardens. They feed on nectar from flowering plants of all heights, and even gather nectar from a perch. These aggressive emeralds breed throughout most of the year and have an insect-like song.