Birds by Bertrando Campos


Rufous-tailed Jacamar

The Rufous-tailed Jacamar is a beautiful inhabitant of forest edges and clearings of Central and South America. The six recognized subspecies of Rufous-tailed Jacamar vary slightly in the amounts of black on the chin and in the number of green central rectrices, but in general males are an iridescent coppery/golden green above with a white throat and cinnamon-rufous underparts. Females are a slightly duller green and have a cinnamon-buff throat. Rufous-tailed Jacamars feed almost exclusively on flying insects, especially dragonflies, butterflies and moths. These birds forage from a perch on an exposed branch 1 to 3 meters from the ground, and sally out to catch insects on the wing. After the jacamar has caught an insect it beats it several times against a branch to stun it and remove the insect's wings before it swallows.

Male Rufous-tailed Jacamar (Galbula ruficauda)

The Rufous-tailed Jacamar is a beautiful inhabitant of forest edges and clearings of Central and South America. The six recognized subspecies of Rufous-tailed Jacamar vary slightly in the amounts of black on the chin and in the number of green central rectrices, but in general males are an iridescent coppery/golden green above with a white throat and cinnamon-rufous underparts. Females are a slightly duller green and have a cinnamon-buff throat. Rufous-tailed Jacamars feed almost exclusively on flying insects, especially dragonflies, butterflies and moths. These birds forage from a perch on an exposed branch 1 to 3 meters from the ground, and sally out to catch insects on the wing. After the jacamar has caught an insect it beats it several times against a branch to stun it and remove the insect's wings before it swallows.

Male Rufous-tailed Jacamar (Galbula ruficauda)

The Rufous-tailed Jacamar is a beautiful inhabitant of forest edges and clearings of Central and South America. The six recognized subspecies of Rufous-tailed Jacamar vary slightly in the amounts of black on the chin and in the number of green central rectrices, but in general males are an iridescent coppery/golden green above with a white throat and cinnamon-rufous underparts. Females are a slightly duller green and have a cinnamon-buff throat. Rufous-tailed Jacamars feed almost exclusively on flying insects, especially dragonflies, butterflies and moths. These birds forage from a perch on an exposed branch 1 to 3 meters from the ground, and sally out to catch insects on the wing. After the jacamar has caught an insect it beats it several times against a branch to stun it and remove the insect's wings before it swallows.

Saffron Toucanet (Pteroglossus bailloni)

The Saffron Toucanet is restricted to humid forests of southeastern Brazil, northeastern Argentina, and eastern Paraguay, and usually is uncommon. Despite its distinctive appearance, the Saffron Toucanet has not been well-studied, and little is known about its natural history. Saffron Toucanets often are quiet, even secretive; they forage for fruit, and perhaps young birds and eggs, in mid levels and the canopy of forest.

Southern Lapwing (Vanellus chilensis)

The Southern Lapwing is a conspicuous inhabitant of grasslands and pastures from Panama and northern South America south to Tierra del Fuego. A large, crested lapwing, the Southern Lapwing has gray brown upperparts with a bronze sheen, a black breast band that extends up to the bird’s forehead, wing spurs, and a white belly and undertail coverts. Southern Lapwings feed mainly on insects, as well as small fish and aquatic invertebrates. Southern. These large plovers are well adapted to human disturbance and are increasing their range in response to deforestation and cultivation.

Green-barred Woodpecker

The Green-barred Woodpecker is a widespread inhabitant of eastern and southern South America. General this woodpecker is yellowish-green with barred wing coverts and rump, and sports a black forehead with a red hindcrown. Green-barred Woodpeckers feed almost exclusively on ants, but also consume some cactus fruits and berries. Most often found foraging in the lower and middle sections of trees, Green-barred Woodpeckers can at times be seen in groups with the larger and more wary Campo Flicker (Colaptes campestris) feeding on ants on the ground.

Rufous-tailed Jacamar

The Rufous-tailed Jacamar is a beautiful inhabitant of forest edges and clearings of Central and South America. The six recognized subspecies of Rufous-tailed Jacamar vary slightly in the amounts of black on the chin and in the number of green central rectrices, but in general males are an iridescent coppery/golden green above with a white throat and cinnamon-rufous underparts. Females are a slightly duller green and have a cinnamon-buff throat. Rufous-tailed Jacamars feed almost exclusively on flying insects, especially dragonflies, butterflies and moths. These birds forage from a perch on an exposed branch 1 to 3 meters from the ground, and sally out to catch insects on the wing. After the jacamar has caught an insect it beats it several times against a branch to stun it and remove the insect's wings before it swallows.

Russet-crowned Crake

Smaller than the congeneric Chestnut-headed Crake (Anurolimnas castaneiceps), the Russet-crowned Crake is further distinguished by having the entire underparts rufous, rather than dark brown from the belly rearwards. The two species are also completely different in terms of their vocalisations. The Russet-crowned Crake is a wide-ranging species, being found over the greater part of Amazonia, as well as more locally in eastern Brazil and in the middle Magdalena Valley of Colombia. This crake prefers dense thickets of second growth, waste ground, wet pastures and bushy savanna, and is not a strict inhabitant of marshes. It has been recorded to at least 1200 m, and is far from being strictly terrestrial, as it regularly climbs on low trees and bushes. Very little has been published on its ecology, although the nest has been described, and the species is generally assumed to breed in the first six months of the year.

White-eyed Parakeet

Periquitão-maracanã (Psittacara leucophthalmus). The White-eyed Parakeet is a medium-sized, conspicuous green parrot widespread in the lowlands of northern and central South America. It resembles many other Aratinga parakeets in being largely green with a white orbital eye ring, red under the wrists, and a variable amount of red on the head. In this species the red on the head is restricted to scattered flecks, which combined with its range should allow easy recognition. It inhabits a suite of habitats including forest, savanna, scrub, Mauritia palm swamps, and mangroves. Like other Aratinga parakeets, it often occurs in noisy flocks, which are often spotted flying overhead, coming to clay licks, or feeding in fruiting trees. Food items are primarily fruit, but also may include flowers, seeds, and occasionally arthropods. This species nests in a cavity in a tree or in the top of a palm. It occurs in lowlands from Venezuela south east of the Andes to northernmost Argentina.

Chestnut-eared Aracari

The Chestnut-eared Aracari is a medium-sized toucan of the Amazon Basin of South America, especially the southern and western parts of the basin. It can be very common in its range and has the widest distribution of any of the aracaris. Chestnut-eared Aracari is primarily frugivorous but also feeds on invertebrates. It is an attractively patterned species with a large yellow and black bill, a pale eye surrounded by blue facial skin, dark upperparts, and a yellow belly divided by a red band.

White-wedged Piculet (Picumnus albosquamatus)

The White-wedged Piculet is an inhabitant of gallery forest and cerrado from central Brazil west to Bolivia and Paraguay. The White-wedged Piculet has warm brown upperparts and a black crown; the feathers of the forecrown of the male are tipped with red. The feathers of the throat and breast are white, bordered with black, forming a scaled appearance on the underparts. This piculet is similar in size and appearance to several other species of Picumnus in central South America, such as the White-barred Piculet Picumnus cirratus and the Ochre-collared Piculet Picumnus temminckii of southeastern South America, and with the Ocellated Piculut Picumnus dorbignyanus of the Andes. The White-wedged Piculet apparently hybridizes with each of these species, where their ranges adjoin. Otherwise little is known about the foraging and breeding habits of the White-wedged Piculet. [http://neotropical.birds.cornell.edu/portal/species/overview?p_p_spp=306296].

Hoatzin (Opisthocomus hoazin)

The Hoatzin is such a bizarre and unique bird that it almost has to be seen to be believed. Fortunately, seeing the Hoatzin is not difficult, as it is widespread in the lowlands of northern and central South America, and is fairly common throughout much of this region. Hoatzins live in trees and shrubs along the margins of lakes and slow-moving rivers. They often sit in groups in the open, although when disturbed they typically retreat into denser cover. They move awkwardly, however, and so give themselves away with sounds of crashing through the vegetation, accompanied by loud vocalizations. Hoatzins in effect are flying cows: their diet primarily is young leaves and buds, which are digested in the crop with the aid of bacteria and microbes. Hoatzins nest over the water. The young can swim, and so may drop to the water when threatened. The nestlings retain claws on their wing (lost in the adult), which they use in climbing back to the nest. The appearance of the Hoatzin is no less distinctive than their natural history, with their long, loose crest, bright blue facial skin, and red eye. For decades ornithologists have debated the relationships of this unique South American bird: at various times the Hoatzin has been thought to be related to Galliformes (cracids and relatives) or to Cuculiformes (cuckoos and relatives), but to date the Hoatzin has defied easy classification. [http://neotropical.birds.cornell.edu/portal/species/overview?p_p_spp=201176].

Toco Toucan (Ramphastos Toco)

The Toco Toucan is the one of the most recognizable tropical birds in the Americas. The only non-forest toucan, the Toco Toucan is found along forest edges and in low wet grassland from Guyana south to Argentina, and from central Brazil west to southeastern Peru. Toco Toucans are the largest species of toucan and can be identified by their black body, white bib, red undertail coverts and large red-orange bill. Toco Toucans feed extensively on figs and other fruit, and also occasionally prey on insects and nestling birds. When foraging, these birds travel in small groups in the canopy, gliding in single file from site to site. [http://neotropical.birds.cornell.edu/portal/species/overview?p_p_spp=302936].

White-eared Puffbird (Nystalus chacuru)

The White-eared Puffbird is a resident of tropical deciduous forest and gallery forest from eastern Peru and central Brazil south to Paraguay and northeastern Argentina. The White-eared Puffbird has a dark brown crown, white collar, rufous-brown upperparts, white underparts and a conspicuous dark brown patch on the bird's lower ear coverts. The White-eared Puffbird still-hunts from mid-level perches in trees and shrubs, and will take a wide range of prey, from insects to reptiles to crabs. These birds have one of the most southerly distributions of any species of puffbird; there is some evidence that the southernmost populations of White-eared Puffbird are migratory. White-eared Puffbirds have also been observed to lower their body temperatures and enter into torpor during cool weather.

Little Woodpecker (Veniliornis passerinus)

Little Woodpeckers are found in a large variety of habitats in South America, but are especially common around forest borders, clearings, and second growth. Among their many habitats are humid forests, deciduous woodlands, mangroves, swamp borders, and wooded savannas. These small, plain woodpeckers forage individually, in pairs, or with a few other birds, and sometimes join mixed-species flocks. They peck and drill into bark, searching for ants, termites, beetles, and other insects. During courtship displays birds spread out their wings and tails, and swing their heads. Several subspecies exist throughout this species’ large range. [Source: http://neotropical.birds.cornell.edu/portal/species/overview?p_p_spp=313976.]

Blue-winged Parrotlet (Forpus xanthopterygius)

The Blue-winged Parrotlet is a small parrot found in riparian and gallery forest from Colombia to southern Brazil and northern Argentina. Blue-winged Parrotlets are green overall, with slightly more yellow-green tones on the underparts. Males also have blue on the bend of the wing, underwing-coverts, lower back and rump. Females lack any blue, and instead are completely green. Blue-winged Parrotlets feed on a variety of fruits and seeds, sometimes coming to the ground to forage. Blue-winged Parrotlets in Argentina move seasonally as different plant communities flower, while populations in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil are altitudinal migrants. [Source: http://neotropical.birds.cornell.edu/portal/species/overview?p_p_spp=189336]

Buff-necked Ibis (Theristicus caudatus)

The Buff-necked Ibis is one of the most widespread species of ibis in South America. It occurs in a wide variety of open habitats such as savanna, ranchland and open forest, but is notable for often being found far from water. It is one of the most distinctive large waders in South America having a bright buffy head and neck, grey back, white primaries and secondaries and black underparts. It is polytypic, with a northern paler subspecies and a southern subspecies that together with the Black-faced Ibis of the Andes form a superspecies. This superspecies has the greatest nest site diversity of any member of its family (Threskiornithidae) with solitary nests to large colonies, placed in a variety of locations such as tree stumps in swampy areas, reed mats, rocky outcrops, cliffs, gullies, or trees in patches of woodland. (Source: http://neotropical.birds.cornell.edu/portal/species/overview?p_p_spp=116956).

Peach-fronted Parakeet (Aratinga aurea)

The Peach-fronted Parakeet is an inhabitant of savanna, gallery forest and cerrado from Suriname to south to northern Argentina, and west to extreme southeastern Peru. The Peach-fronted Parakeet has a peachy orange forehead and midcrown; a pale orange orbital ring; dull blue wings, tail and hindcrown; and olive brown cheeks and underparts that fade to yellow-green on the undertail coverts.

Buff-necked Ibis (Theristicus caudatus)

The Buff-necked Ibis is one of the most widespread species of ibis in South America. It occurs in a wide variety of open habitats such as savanna, ranchland and open forest, but is notable for often being found far from water. It is one of the most distinctive large waders in South America having a bright buffy head and neck, grey back, white primaries and secondaries and black underparts. It is polytypic, with a northern paler subspecies and a southern subspecies that together with the Black-faced Ibis of the Andes form a superspecies. This superspecies has the greatest nest site diversity of any member of its family (Threskiornithidae) with solitary nests to large colonies, placed in a variety of locations such as tree stumps in swampy areas, reed mats, rocky outcrops, cliffs, gullies, or trees in patches of woodland.

White-eared Puffbird (Nystalus chacuru)

The White-eared Puffbird is a resident of tropical deciduous forest and gallery forest from eastern Peru and central Brazil south to Paraguay and northeastern Argentina. The White-eared Puffbird has a dark brown crown, white collar, rufous-brown upperparts, white underparts and a conspicuous dark brown patch on the bird's lower ear coverts. The White-eared Puffbird still-hunts from mid-level perches in trees and shrubs, and will take a wide range of prey, from insects to reptiles to crabs. These birds have one of the most southerly distributions of any species of puffbird; there is some evidence that the southernmost populations of White-eared Puffbird are migratory. White-eared Puffbirds have also been observed to lower their body temperatures and enter into torpor during cool weather.

White-barred Piculet (Picumnus cirratus) Male

The White-barred Piculet has 10cm long and inhabits open forest and scrub. This species has a disjunct distribution, with populations in northern South America in southwestern Guyana, and in French Guiana and northeastern Brazil; and in south central South America, from Bolivia east to southern Brazil. The White-barred Piculet has a black crown (with a red forecrown in the male), dull brown upperparts and cheek patches, and white underparts that are barred with black. Their diet consists mainly of the larvae and eggs of wood-boring beetles, as well as ants and possibly sap. White-barred Piculets forage by audibly hammering in order to excavate holes in trees and shrubs.

White-barred Piculet (Picumnus cirratus) Male

The White-barred Piculet has 10cm long and inhabits open forest and scrub. This species has a disjunct distribution, with populations in northern South America in southwestern Guyana, and in French Guiana and northeastern Brazil; and in south central South America, from Bolivia east to southern Brazil. The White-barred Piculet has a black crown (with a red forecrown in the male), dull brown upperparts and cheek patches, and white underparts that are barred with black. Their diet consists mainly of the larvae and eggs of wood-boring beetles, as well as ants and possibly sap. White-barred Piculets forage by audibly hammering in order to excavate holes in trees and shrubs.

Spot-backed Puffbird (Nystalus maculatus)

The Spot-backed Puffbird is a resident of deciduous woodland and savanna from Northeastern Brazil to Northwest Argentina. The Spot-backed Puffbird is a striking member of the family Bucconidae with a red bill, dark brown crown with buffy spots, orange rufous throat, buffy-barred upperparts and a boldly spotted breast. Spot-backed Puffbirds generally still-hunt from low perches, occasionally making explosive sallies to the ground to catch insects and small vertebrates. Unlike other species of puffbirds, the Spot-backed Puffbird is an active singer and is often heard singing in duos and trios.

Whistling Heron (Syrigma sibilatrix)

The Whistling Heron is endemic to South America, where it occupies two disjunct regions. A northern population, which is smaller and paler, occurs in the llanos grasslands of Venezuela and eastern Colombia, whereas a larger, darker subspecies is widely distributed in the grasslands of southeastern South American, from the pantanal of Bolivia south to southeastern Brazil, Uruguay and northeastern Argentina. The Whistling Heron is one of the least aquatic members of its family and prefers to forage for large arthropods in open wet grasslands. This bird is named for its distinctive high pitched calls.

Blue-crowned Trogon (Trogon curucui)

Blue-crowned Trogon is fairly uncommon throughout its large range. They are found in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, and Peru. They occur in lowland humid forest, particularly in várzea, and seem to prefer edges and second growth. Like other trogons, they forage on small arthropods and fruit, often perching motionlessly for long periods of time. To distinguish Blue-crowned from other trogons, note especially the red belly and black tail fairly barred with white, field marks that are present in both sexes. Males also have a blue head and breast, whereas females are gray throughout their head, breast, and back. Their voice is a series of fairly high yelping notes that often crescendos in the middle. The of the Blue-crowned Trogon is a tunnel dug into an active arboreal termite mound.

Chestnut-eared Aracari (Pteroglossus castanotis)

The Chestnut-eared Aracari is a medium-sized toucan of the Amazon Basin of South America, especially the southern and western parts of the basin. It can be very common in its range and has the widest distribution of any of the aracaris. Chestnut-eared Aracari is primarily frugivorous but also feeds on invertebrates. It is an attractively patterned species with a large yellow and black bill, a pale eye surrounded by blue facial skin, dark upperparts, and a yellow belly divided by a red band.

Yellow-fronted Woodpecker

Benedito-de-testa-amarela (Melanerpes flavifrons). The Yellow-fronted Woodpecker is a typical Melanerpes in most aspects of its behavior, but it is certainly one of the most attractive of the genus. The upperparts are largely blue-black, with a large white rump patch, and there is also a broad dark stripe through the eye reaching to the ‘shoulder’. The crown and belly are red, the flanks heavily dark-barred, and the throat, forehead, and eye-ring are yellow, while females lack the red crown. The Yellow-fronted Woodpecker forms a superspecies with the Yellow-tufted Woodpecker (Melanerpes cruentatus), which is exclusively Amazonian in distribution, whereas the present species is confined to southeast South America, where it is endemic to humid forest and semi-open wooded areas within the Atlantic Forest biome, from southeast Brazil to eastern Paraguay and northeast Argentina. Like other Melanerpes, the Yellow-fronted Woodpecker breeds cooperatively, with up to four males and two females attending a single nest.

Green-barred Woodpecker

Pica-pau-verde-barrado (Colaptes melanochloros). The Green-barred Woodpecker is a widespread inhabitant of eastern and southern South America. General this woodpecker is yellowish-green with barred wing coverts and rump, and sports a black forehead with a red hindcrown. Green-barred Woodpeckers feed almost exclusively on ants, but also consume some cactus fruits and berries. Most often found foraging in the lower and middle sections of trees, Green-barred Woodpeckers can at times be seen in groups with the larger and more wary Campo Flicker (Colaptes campestris) feeding on ants on the ground.

Ruddy Ground-Dove

Ruddy Ground-Doves are appropriately named after the bright ruddy-colored plumage of the male, which makes them distinctive from males of other ground-doves. There are four subspecies ranging from northern Mexico south to eastern Peru and northern Argentina. Some geographic variation in plumage occurs with individuals in drier western areas being paler than those in wetter eastern areas. This is a versatile species occupying open, wet habitats from riparian areas to suburban yards. Open areas, often bare ground, are used for finding seeds on the ground, their main food source. They are prolific breeders capable of breeding year-round in parts of their range and produce multiple broods, up to four broods per year. Given their flexibility in habitat use and rapid reproduction, Ruddy Ground-Doves are common throughout their range and are in the lowest threat category recognized by BirdLife International.

White-fronted Nunbird

White-fronted Nunbird is a fairly uncommon resident in the midstory and subcanopy of terre firme forest. The closely related Black-fronted Nunbird lacks the white face and is found in varzea forest rather than terre firme. Although their song is similar to Black-fronted, it is generally faster and higher; they also tend to be less vocal overall. Often encountered in pairs or small family groups, White-fronted Nunbirds are frequently found in mixed passerine flocks. In fact, seeing this species is often a good indication of a nearby flock.

Crimson-crested Woodpecker

Crimson-crested Woodpecker is the most widespread species of Campephilus. It occurs regularly from Panama south to northern Argentina, including across the Guianan Shield and throughout Amazonia. It is a very large, robust woodpecker with a large red crest. The male is distinguished from other co-occurring large woodpeckers by the combination of barred underparts and an entirely red head that lacks facial stripes, and has only a suggestion of a black-and-white "slash" below the eye. Females have a black front to the crest, and a very broad white malar stripe that continues into the white strip down the neck. Crimson-crested Woodpecker is found in a variety of habitats, from forest to forest edge and light woodland. It usually occurs in pairs or family groups and can be quite noisy. The drum of Crimson-crested Woodpecker typically consists of 3-5 raps.

Campo Flicker

A characteristic bird of open country, the Campo Flicker occupies savanna and scrubland; it has a few isolated populations in northeastern South America and in Amazonia, and is widespread in central South America. These woodpeckers are characterized by their black forehead, red and black malar, dark brown upperparts, and barred underparts. Campo Flickers feed almost exclusively on the ground, walking or hopping along the ground in search of termites, ants and beetles. They sometimes forage in flocks. Campo Flickers have been known to hammer open the large mounds made by terrestrial termites to get at the insects within.

Green-barred Woodpecker

The Green-barred Woodpecker is a widespread inhabitant of eastern and southern South America. General this woodpecker is yellowish-green with barred wing coverts and rump, and sports a black forehead with a red hindcrown. Green-barred Woodpeckers feed almost exclusively on ants, but also consume some cactus fruits and berries. Most often found foraging in the lower and middle sections of trees, Green-barred Woodpeckers can at times be seen in groups with the larger and more wary Campo Flicker (Colaptes campestris) feeding on ants on the ground.

Saffron Toucanet (Pteroglossus bailloni)

The Saffron Toucanet is restricted to humid forests of southeastern Brazil, northeastern Argentina, and eastern Paraguay, and usually is uncommon. Despite its distinctive appearance, the Saffron Toucanet has not been well-studied, and little is known about its natural history. Saffron Toucanets often are quiet, even secretive; they forage for fruit, and perhaps young birds and eggs, in mid levels and the canopy of forest.

Green-barred Woodpecker

The Green-barred Woodpecker is a widespread inhabitant of eastern and southern South America. General this woodpecker is yellowish-green with barred wing coverts and rump, and sports a black forehead with a red hindcrown. Green-barred Woodpeckers feed almost exclusively on ants, but also consume some cactus fruits and berries. Most often found foraging in the lower and middle sections of trees, Green-barred Woodpeckers can at times be seen in groups with the larger and more wary Campo Flicker (Colaptes campestris) feeding on ants on the ground.

Black-fronted Nunbird (Monasa nigrifrons)

The Black-fronted Nunbird is one of the four nunbirds in the genus Monasa. All four species are large, black puffbirds with pale bills, best identified by the presence and location of white in their plumages and the color of their bills. The Black-fronted is the only nunbird with all-dark plumage and an orange bill. The Black-fronted Nunbird occurs in groups that perch conspicuously and regularly erupt into noisy choruses of whistles and churrs. It forages mostly for arthropods at lower levels in open floodplain forest, floodplain forest edge, bamboo, and riverine secondary growth. Like most puffbirds, the Black-fronted Nunbird nests in a burrow in a bank or in the ground.

Guira Cuckoo (Guira guira)

The Guira Cuckoo is perhaps the most common cuckoo over a diversity of drier habitats from the mouth of the Amazon south to central Argentina. The Guira Cuckoo is highly social and is generally seen in flocks of 6-8 birds which can accrue to over 20 individuals at times, especially after breeding. The species also breeds communally, with several females laying up to 20 eggs in a single nest. Within the nest, there is much competition between parents and only a quarter of the eggs survive to fledging, the remainder are destroyed or buried or killed as hatchlings by competing adults. It feeds on large arthropods, frogs, eggs, small birds (especially nestlings) and small mammals such as mice.

Female Rufous-tailed Jacamar (Galbula ruficauda)

The Rufous-tailed Jacamar (Galbula ruficauda) is a beautiful inhabitant of forest edges and clearings of Central and South America. Rufous-tailed Jacamars feed almost exclusively on flying insects, especially dragonflies, butterflies and moths. These birds forage from a perch on an exposed branch 1 to 3 meters from the ground, and sally out to catch insects on the wing. After the jacamar has caught an insect it beats it several times against a branch to stun it and remove the insect's wings before it swallows.

Scaled Dove (Columbina squammata)

The Scaled Dove is a resident of arid savanna and scrub. It occurs in two disjunct populations, one in northern South America in Venezuela and Colombia, and another that extends from northeastern Argentina north through central and eastern Brazil. The Scaled Dove has greyish-brown upperparts, pinkish-grey face and breast, white throat, and white distal wing coverts that form a conspicuous white patch on the bird's closed wings. The dove is gets its "scaled" appearance from the dark edges of the birds feathers. The Scaled Dove is typically found alone or in pairs foraging on the ground for seeds and invertebrates.

Peach-fronted Parakeet (Aratinga aurea)

The Peach-fronted Parakeet is an inhabitant of savanna, gallery forest and cerrado from Suriname to south to northern Argentina, and west to extreme southeastern Peru. The Peach-fronted Parakeet has a peachy orange forehead and midcrown; a pale orange orbital ring; dull blue wings, tail and hindcrown; and olive brown cheeks and underparts that fade to yellow-green on the undertail coverts.

White Woodpecker

The White Woodpecker is a distinctive inhabitant of lightly wooded savannas and grasslands and forest edge of central South American. It occurs from extreme southeastern Peru east to northeastern Brazil and south to Argentina. The White Woodpecker has a white head and white underparts, set off with yellow patches on the hindneck and belly; there is a black stripe that extends from the rear of the eye to the mantle; and has black wings and tail. The White Woodpecker typically forages in groups of 5 to 8 individuals, sometimes in mixed species flocks with members of the woodpecker genus Colaptes. An arboreal species, the White Woodpecker feeds predominantly on fruits and seeds, but will also feed on insects. White Woodpeckers occasionally open bee nests to get at the honey and insects within. [http://neotropical.birds.cornell.edu/portal/species/overview?p_p_spp=308056].

Green-backed Trogon

One of the yellow-bellied trogons, the Green-backed Trogon, Trogon viridis, is widely found in Amazonia with disjunct populations in southeastern coastal Brazil and on the island of Trinidad. Until recently, these populations were classified as subspecies of White-tailed Trogon, though mitochondrial gene analysis and differences in voice and plumage served as evidence in the acceptance of this as a distinct species. In addition to having a orange-yellow belly and under tail-coverts, males have black cheeks and throat with the rest of the head, neck, and upper chest black with iridescent purplish-blue. They have a pale blue orbital ring and a bluish white bill. The back is an iridescent green shifting to purplish-blue on rump and the upper tail is a bronze green, narrowly tipped with black. The white tips on the undertail are more extensive on the outer web giving the tail white edges with a dark center. Females are duller in color than males as the green and blue tones found in males are replaced by gray. Similar to White-tailed Trogons, the Green-backed Trogon has a very broad habitat range, frequently seen in second growth, forest edge as well as humid and dry forests up to 1,000 meters. The calls are a series of about 15-20 rapid but evenly spaced cow notes and differ from White-tailed Trogon whose call accelerates and often becomes louder towards the end. Nests in arboreal termitaria with both sexes excavating the nest which usually contains 2-3 eggs.

White-eared Puffbird

The White-eared Puffbird is a resident of tropical deciduous forest and gallery forest from eastern Peru and central Brazil south to Paraguay and northeastern Argentina. The White-eared Puffbird has a dark brown crown, white collar, rufous-brown upperparts, white underparts and a conspicuous dark brown patch on the bird's lower ear coverts. The White-eared Puffbird still-hunts from mid-level perches in trees and shrubs, and will take a wide range of prey, from insects to reptiles to crabs. These birds have one of the most southerly distributions of any species of puffbird; there is some evidence that the southernmost populations of White-eared Puffbird are migratory. White-eared Puffbirds have also been observed to lower their body temperatures and enter into torpor during cool weather.

Chestnut Woodpecker

The Chestnut Woodpecker is one of the more widespread species of Celeus woodpeckers ranging from Trinidad, eastern Venezuela, the Guianas, and through much of northern and central Amazonia from eastern Ecuador, southern Colombia south through eastern Peru and western Brazil to northern Bolivia. Several distinct subspecies are involved. Chestnut is a large Celeus, and unique, except for the yellow Cream-colored Woodpecker (Celeus flavus), in that it lacks black markings on the body and wings. Generally, it is entirely dark chestnut brown, including the large hammerhead crest, with shades differing with different subspecies. Males differ from females by having a red moustache and a paler ivory yellow bill. Found in a variety of habitats, but most often found in the mid-story of varzea forest, or along the edge of streams and oxbow lakes.

Toco Toucan

Tucanuçu (Ramphastos toco). The Toco Toucan is the one of the most recognizable tropical birds in the Americas. The only non-forest toucan, the Toco Toucan is found along forest edges and in low wet grassland from Guyana south to Argentina, and from central Brazil west to southeastern Peru. Toco Toucans are the largest species of toucan and can be identified by their black body, white bib, red undertail coverts and large red-orange bill. Toco Toucans feed extensively on figs and other fruit, and also occasionally prey on insects and nestling birds. When foraging, these birds travel in small groups in the canopy, gliding in single file from site to site. [http://neotropical.birds.cornell.edu/portal/species/overview?p_p_spp=302936].

White-throated Toucan

The loud, yelping calls of the White-throated Toucan are one of the most characteristic sounds of humid lowland forest in Amazonia, and can carry for a long distance. White-throated Toucans deliver their call with remarkable gusto, often jerking the bill and the tail upward with each yelp; these calls may be given in a duet, the calls of the female being at a higher pitch than those to the male. The toucans forage in forest canopy, and also enter adjacent tall second growth. The diet is typical of Ramphastos toucans: a mix of fruit, large arthropods, and small vertebrates (such as lizards, and the nestlings and eggs of smaller birds). The sexes are similar in appearance, but male is larger, with a bill that is even longer, relative to body size, than the bill of the female.

Amazonian Motmot (Momotus momota)

The Amazonian Motmot is the most widespread, familiar motmot of the lowlands of South America east of the Andes. Its double-noted hooting call is a familiar sound in many areas of the Neotropics. Birds often perch on a favored branch, where they cock their long tail back and forth like a clock pendulum and occasionally sally after a flying insect. Like many motmots, the Blue-crowned has weak subterminal barbs on the central two rectrices. These barbs fall off shortly after the rectrices grow in to leave a distinctive racquet shape to the tail. The Amazonian Motmot is similar in many respects to several other allopatric species of motmots in the "Blue-crowned Motmot" complex, all of which formerly were classified as a single, highly variable species. [http://neotropical.birds.cornell.edu/portal/species/overview?p_p_spp=286136].

Female Yellow-fronted Woodpecker (Melanerpes flavifrons)

The Yellow-fronted Woodpecker is a typical Melanerpes in most aspects of its behavior, but it is certainly one of the most attractive of the genus. The upperparts are largely blue-black, with a large white rump patch, and there is also a broad dark stripe through the eye reaching to the ‘shoulder’. The crown and belly are red, the flanks heavily dark-barred, and the throat, forehead, and eye-ring are yellow, while females lack the red crown. The Yellow-fronted Woodpecker forms a superspecies with the Yellow-tufted Woodpecker (Melanerpes cruentatus), which is exclusively Amazonian in distribution, whereas the present species is confined to southeast South America, where it is endemic to humid forest and semi-open wooded areas within the Atlantic Forest biome, from southeast Brazil to eastern Paraguay and northeast Argentina. Like other Melanerpes, the Yellow-fronted Woodpecker breeds cooperatively, with up to four males and two females attending a single nest.

Female Green-barred Woodpecker (Colaptes melanochloros)

The Green-barred Woodpecker is a widespread inhabitant of eastern and southern South America. General this woodpecker is yellowish-green with barred wing coverts and rump, and sports a black forehead with a red hindcrown. Green-barred Woodpeckers feed almost exclusively on ants, but also consume some cactus fruits and berries. Most often found foraging in the lower and middle sections of trees, Green-barred Woodpeckers can at times be seen in groups with the larger and more wary Campo Flicker (Colaptes campestris) feeding on ants on the ground.

Blue-and-yellow Macaw (Ara ararauna)

The Blue-and-Yellow Macaw is a boldly colored resident of the Neotropics that is found from eastern Panama through Colombia and from Venezuela east to Brazil and south to Bolivia. These macaws have a dull green forecrown with blue upperparts, a white bare face patch with a blackish green chinstrap, and bright yellow on the underparts, underside of tail, and underwing-coverts. Within their preferred habitat of seasonally flooded várzea and gallery forest, Blue-and-Yellow Macaws feed on a variety of fruits and nuts. The Blue-and-Yellow Macaw is not a globally threatened species, but its numbers are declining across much of its range due to hunting and the relentless collection of young birds for the pet trade.