Birds by Bertrando Campos


Gray Monjita

Primavera (Xolmis cinereus). The Gray Monjita occupies grasslands from Suriname south through central South America to southeastern Peru and to Argentina. As the name implies, the Gray Monjita is predominantly gray, with a white supercilium, loral stripe and throat; a black submoustachial stripe; black wings; and a white belly. The Gray Monjita often perches conspicuously on fences, bushes and wires, dropping to the ground to catch prey. The Gray Monjita is a fast graceful flier, and has the interesting habit of often flying with its legs dangling. These flycatchers are well adapted to human disturbance, and are often seen perched in city centers sitting on buildings and television antennae. Gray Monjitas are mostly resident, but southern populations are migratory during the colder months.

Sharp-tailed Tyrant (Culicivora caudacuta)

In life this attractive little flycatcher is one that is much sharper looking than the books make it out to be. It is a small (10 cm) and slim flycatcher with a long narrow tail. Sharp-tailed Tyrants have short, relatively thick black bills and a well patterned face with a dark cap, bright white supercilium and blackish mask; the upperparts are striped brown and tawny, and there is a vivid tawny wash to the breast sides, flanks and the sides of the face. This is a flycatcher of conservation concern that is declining at a noticeable rate. It is found in tall dry native grassland, campo cerrado habitat. This habitat is quickly disappearing due to conversion into soybean fields, ranching, or even pine and eucalyptus plantations. The preferred habitat is “old growth” grassland, where Loudetia grasses reach 2m in height, not areas that are burned annually as is often the case in parts of its range.

White-headed Marsh-Tyrant (Arundinicola leucocephala) Female

The White-headed Marsh-Tyrant is a widespread species in tropical South America though absent from much of Amazonia. Sexually dimorphic, the male’s plumage consists of a stark white head and black body making it one of the most unique tyrant-flycatchers. The species has a strong ecological preference for slow moving or stagnant marshlands where it perches on reeds or small shrubs and sallies for flying insects. Its nest is a large, messy, globular construction of grass and feathers with a side entrance. Conspicuous and distinctive, the male White-headed Marsh-Tyrant is not likely to be missed or mis-identified in appropriate habitat, although the female should be compared with species of the genus Fluvicola.

Yellow-lored Tody-Flycatcher (Todirostrum poliocephalum)

It is a species of bird in the Tyrannidae family, endemic to Brazil. Measures an average of 8.8 centimeters and weighs an average of 6.8 grams. It is an insectivorous bird, feeding on small arthropods. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and heavily degraded former forest, including urban parks and gardens. Spends most of the time amongst foliage and is hard to be observed due to its diminutive size. Makes, however, a conspicuous round nest with straw and leaves, hanging from branches at a small height from the ground and with a side entrance. Lays from two to three eggs each nesting season, which are incubated solely by the female.

Variegated Flycatcher (Empidonomus varius)

The Variegated Flycatcher breeds in much of South America east of the Andes south to northern Argentina, although it is apparently absent as a breeder from western Amazonia. The nominate subspecies (E. v. varius) vacates the southern portion of its breeding range during the austral winter, moving north to northern South America, including the western Amazon basin. As with some other austral migrants, this species is prone to vagrancy, and there have been several records from the United States and Canada. One of several similar "streaked" flycatchers, the Variegated is intermediate in size between the smaller Piratic (Legatus leucophaius) and larger Streaked (Myiodynastes maculatus) flycatchers. It is fairly common and conspicuous in forest patches, edge habitats, and more heavily-wooded savannas, where it sallies for insects and also regularly consumes small fruit.

Streamer-tailed Tyrant (Gubernetes yetapa)

The Streamer-tailed Tyrant is a distinctive resident of Buriti palm groves and seasonally wet grassland from western Bolivia to central Brazil and to northeastern Argentina. Overall these birds appear pale gray with black wings that are highlighted by a patch of cinnamon at the base of the primaries. Aptly named, the Streamer-tailed Tyrant has a long deeply forked tail. Streamer-tailed Tyrants often perch conspicuously on the tops of low trees and bushes and utter a harsh repeated "wurreep" call. They forage by flying low over marshy areas before pouncing to the ground to catch large arthropods. During courtship, the members of a pair of Streamer-tailed Tyrants perch 10-50 cm apart facing one another, while each bird alternately lowers their head and raises and fans their long tail. The birds then proceed to lower their tail and raise their heads while raising their wings and calling continuously.

Ochre-faced Tody-Flycatcher (Poecilotriccus plumbeiceps)

The Ochre-faced Tody-Flycatcher occurs in two disjunct regions in South America: in the humid Andes from southern Peru south to northwestern Argentina, and again in northeastern Argentina, eastern Paraguay, and eastern Brazil. Four subspecies usually are recognized, two in the Andes and two in eastern South America, but there are only minor plumage differences between these subspecies. All populations readily are recognized by the bright buffy sides to the head, with a contrasting olive spot on the auriculars and an olive crown. This species is insectivorous, traveling solitarily or in pairs in the understory of humid forest and foraging with short sallies. The nest is a bulky, untidy, hanging nest with a side entrance. Little is known of its reproductive biology, but it has been reported as a host species for the brood-parasitic Pavonine Cuckoo (Dromococcyx pavoninus). The Ochre-faced Tody-Flycatcher usually is fairly common, although at times it may be difficult to see when foraging in dense vegetation.

Common Tody-Flycatcher (Todirostrum cinereum)

The Common Tody-Flycatcher is a common and widespread species of secondary forest and forest edge; it is distributed from southern Mexico to south to northeastern Argentina, but is absent from much of the Amazon Basin. Male Common Tody-Flycatchers have glossy black forecrowns, slate gray hindcrowns, olive upperparts, black wings and bright yellow underparts; the iris usually is yellow. Common Tody-Flycatchers forage in pairs or small family groups in dense vegetation close to the ground or in the open mid-level canopy of trees. They catch prey by gleaning or in short forward and upward sallies, always catching prey with an audible snap. Like other species of tody-tyrant, the Common Tody-Flycatcher builds a hanging pouch shaped nests 1 to 5 m off the ground made out of plant material and bound with spiderweb.

Social Flycatcher (Myiozetetes similis)

The Social Flycatcher is a widespread and familiar member of the avifauna throughout much of the Neotropics. It can be quite common near water in forest and edge habitats ranging from northern Argentina north to Mexico. Similar to other stocky yellow, black and white flycatchers, Social Flycatcher is medium sized with brown upperparts and tail, a short, decurved bill, bold black and white striped head, and yellow underparts that run from the white throat to the undertail coverts. The species is easily detected, sits out in the open and gives loud, harsh and sometimes chattering calls.

Yellow-lored Tody-Flycatcher (Todirostrum poliocephalum)

It is a species of bird in the Tyrannidae family, endemic to Brazil. Measures an average of 8.8 centimeters and weighs an average of 6.8 grams. It is an insectivorous bird, feeding on small arthropods.

White-headed Marsh-Tyrant

The White-headed Marsh-Tyrant is a widespread species in tropical South America though absent from much of Amazonia. Sexually dimorphic, the male’s plumage consists of a stark white head and black body making it one of the most unique tyrant-flycatchers. The species has a strong ecological preference for slow moving or stagnant marshlands where it perches on reeds or small shrubs and sallies for flying insects. Its nest is a large, messy, globular construction of grass and feathers with a side entrance. Conspicuous and distinctive, the male White-headed Marsh-Tyrant is not likely to be missed or mis-identified in appropriate habitat, although the female should be compared with species of the genus Fluvicola.

Crowned Slaty Flycatcher (Griseotyrannus aurantioatrocristatus)

The name Griseotyrannus aurantioatrocristatus means "orange-colored, black-crested grey Tyrannus". It is found in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical dry forests and subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests. The Crowned Slaty Flycatcher migrates into the mostly western and central Amazon Basin as a non-breeding resident, except in the southeast bordering the Cerrado and Pantanal, where it is resident in much of the western cerrado and southwards; the migration occurs during the austral winter. Its binomial is the longest of any bird species, fifteen syllables when spoken aloud.

Planalto Tyrannulet (Phyllomyias fasciatus)

The Planalto Tyrannulet is a very unassuming bird in terms of its plumage, which is generally rather similar to that of most other Phyllomyias tyrannulets. Principally olive-green above, with pale yellowish underparts, there are few obvious features apart from a slight pale supercilium and two pale wing bars. Voice, typically a soft trisyllabic whistle, is often as good a clue as any as to the species’ presence. It is found from northeast Argentina and eastern Paraguay, in the south, north to northeast Brazil, with localized populations in parts of eastern Amazonia, and in terms of habitat the Planalto Tyrannulet prefers humid forest and tall second growth below c.1800 m.

Happy Holidays Season

Let the spirit of love gently fill our hearts and homes. In this loveliest of seasons may you find many reasons for happiness. Merry Christmas and Happy New Year. See you in 2014.

Sharp-tailed Tyrant (Culicivora caudacuta)

In life this attractive little flycatcher is one that is much sharper looking than the books make it out to be. It is a small 10 cm) and slim flycatcher with a long narrow tail. Sharp-tailed Tyrants have short, relatively thick black bills and a well patterned face with a dark cap, bright white supercilium and blackish mask; the upperparts are striped brown and tawny, and there is a vivid tawny wash to the breast sides, flanks and the sides of the face. This is a flycatcher of conservation concern that is declining at a noticeable rate. It is found in tall dry native grassland, campo cerrado habitat. This habitat is quickly disappearing due to conversion into soybean fields, ranching, or even pine and eucalyptus plantations. The preferred habitat is “old growth” grassland, where Loudetia grasses reach 2m in height, not areas that are burned annually as is often the case in parts of its range.

Variegated Flycatcher

The Variegated Flycatcher breeds in much of South America east of the Andes south to northern Argentina, although it is apparently absent as a breeder from western Amazonia. The nominate subspecies (E. v. varius) vacates the southern portion of its breeding range during the austral winter, moving north to northern South America, including the western Amazon basin. As with some other austral migrants, this species is prone to vagrancy, and there have been several records from the United States and Canada. One of several similar "streaked" flycatchers, the Variegated is intermediate in size between the smaller Piratic (Legatus leucophaius) and larger Streaked (Myiodynastes maculatus) flycatchers. It is fairly common and conspicuous in forest patches, edge habitats, and more heavily-wooded savannas, where it sallies for insects and also regularly consumes small fruit.

Sharp-tailed Tyrant (Culicivora caudacuta)

In life this attractive little flycatcher is one that is much sharper looking than the books make it out to be. It is a small 10 cm) and slim flycatcher with a long narrow tail. Sharp-tailed Tyrants have short, relatively thick black bills and a well patterned face with a dark cap, bright white supercilium and blackish mask; the upperparts are striped brown and tawny, and there is a vivid tawny wash to the breast sides, flanks and the sides of the face. This is a flycatcher of conservation concern that is declining at a noticeable rate. It is found in tall dry native grassland, campo cerrado habitat. This habitat is quickly disappearing due to conversion into soybean fields, ranching, or even pine and eucalyptus plantations. The preferred habitat is “old growth” grassland, where Loudetia grasses reach 2m in height, not areas that are burned annually as is often the case in parts of its range.

Lesser Kiskadee

Bentevizinho-do-brejo (Philohydor lictor or Pitangus lictor). The Lesser Kiskadee is a medium-sized, colorful flycatcher of much of northern South American. Found from Panama south through the river lowlands of the northern half of the country, it also has a disjunct distribution along the east coast of Brazil; it inhabits shrubby areas near water below 500 meters in elevation. Overall, it appears like a much smaller version of the very familiar Great Kiskadee, being rufescent brown above and yellow below with a black head marked by a broad white superciliary, white throat, yellow coronal patch, and a slim but sturdy black bill. Lesser Kiskadee does not sound anything like the familiar "kiss my rear" of the Great Kiskadee, making nasal, buzzy, slurred calls instead. As an additional difference, Lesser Kiskadee builds a simple cup for its nest, completely unlike the large basket nest of the Great Kiskadee.

Cliff Flycatcher

The Cliff Flycatcher is a slender tyrannid of forest edge and rocky outcroppings Guyana, Suriname and Venezuela south along the Andes to northwestern Argentina, and also is found from northeastern Brazil south to northeastern Argentina. The Cliff Flycatcher has blackish-brown upperparts, mottled white cheeks and supericilia, and a cinnamon throat and underparts. Reminiscent of a swallow in both its shape and manner of flight, the Cliff Flycatcher catches insects by making long powerful aerial sallies from a perch on a rocky outcropping, cliff face or overhanging branch. The Cliff Flycatcher is well adapted to human altered environments, and in São Paulo these birds nest on apartment blocks and high-rise buildings. Southern breeders migrate north during the austral winter. (Source: http://neotropical.birds.cornell.edu/portal/species/overview?p_p_spp=451756).

Vermilion Flycatcher

Príncipe (Pyrocephalus rubinus) The Vermilion Flycatcher is a vibrantly colored inhabitant of open woodland and pastureland from the American Southwest to south to central Argentina. Male Vermilion Flycatchers have a bushy brilliant red crown and underparts, and a slate black mask, upperparts and tail. Females differ greatly in plumage from males, with a grayish-brown crown and upperparts, dark lores, a whitish supercilium, and white breast and underparts with fine gray streaks. In central Peru, especially within the city of Lima, there is an unusual local dusky color morph, that occurs in both sexes; this dusky morph exists alongside Vermilion Flycatchers with the standard plumage. Vermilion Flycatchers often perch with erect posture in the lower branches of a tree or shrub. They frequently wag their tail, and sally out to catch insects in the air or on the ground. Vermilion Flycatchers have a variety of different migratory patterns depending on their breeding range. Populations from the southern United States and northern Mexico migrate south to Central America, while populations from Argentina and Paraguay migrate as far north as Colombia during the austral winter.

White-throated Kingbird

This is not truly a bird photograph. The bird was so far, but I liked the composition so much, then, I'm posting it. The White-throated Kingbird is an inhabitant of gallery forest and open savanna from Venezuela south to Bolivia. The White-throated Kingbird has a pale grey head with a semi-concealed yellow coronal patch, a dusky-black eyeline, olive-green upperparts, bright yellow underparts and a dull blackish-brown tail and wings. White-throated Kingbirds can be distinguished from the similar Tropical Kingbird (Tyrannus melancholicus) by their slightly smaller size, square-ended tail, greyer back, whiter throat and paler underparts. When foraging, the White-throated Kingbird sallys fors insects from a perch 3 to 4 m above the ground. An austral migrant, the White-throated Kingbird migrates to the western Amazon as far north as Colombia during the southern winter.

Plain-crested Elaenia (Elaenia cristata)

The Plain-crested Elaenia is a resident of open savanna and scrubby thickets from Venezuela south to central Brazil; there also are isolated populations in Colombia, Peru and Bolivia. A small drab elaenia, the Plain-crested Elaenia has olive-brown upperparts, two white wing bars, and a pale yellow belly and undertail coverts. The crown feathers of the Plain-crested Elaenia are greatly elongated and form a conspicuous crest, although the crest lacks the white coronal patch of other species of elaenia. Plain-crested Elaenias often perch, with upright posture, in the crowns of shrubs and trees. Plain-crested Elaenias primarily forage on insects and berries by perch-gleaning or by flutter-gleaning. [Source: http://neotropical.birds.cornell.edu/portal/species/overview?p_p_spp=427401].

Rusty-margined Flycatcher (Myiozetetes cayanensis)

The Rusty-margined Flycatcher is found at forest edge and in woody second growth from eastern Panama to south to southeastern Brazil. Rusty-margined Flycatchers have a dark sooty head with a yellow coronal patch and a white supercilium, brown upperparts and wings with cinnamon edges on the secondaries and proximal primaries, and bright yellow underparts. This general color pattern is shared among several genera of large-bodied neotropical flycatchers, including closely related species such as the Social Flycatcher Myiozetetes similis. More retiring and less vocal than the Social Flycatcher, the Rusty-margined Flycatcher often perches in open areas hawking insects or sallying to the ground to forage. The seasonal movements of the Rusty-margined Flycatcher are not well known, but some relative abundance of some in northern Sound America is reported to fluctuate seasonally.

Velvety Black-Tyrant (Knipolegus nigerrimus)

The Velvety Black-Tyrant is endemic to Brazil, where two, perhaps disjunct, populations are known, in the northeast (from Pernambuco south to central Bahia) and further south, from Espírito Santo south to Rio Grande do Sul. Males are not especially distinctive, being largely black except for the white bases to the primaries, which are usually only seen in flight, with red irides, but are distinguished from the slightly larger Crested Black-Tyrant (Knipolegus lophotes) by their shorter and bushier crest. Females are much more immediately recognized, by the very dark red throat patch, which distinguishes them from any other black-tyrant. Velvety Black-Tyrants are usually encountered in highland areas, in grassy or rocky areas with some trees and shrubs. [http://neotropical.birds.cornell.edu/portal/species/overview?p_p_spp=462156].

Boat-billed Flycatcher (Megarynchus pitangua)

The Boat-billed Flycatcher is a large and widespread inhabitant of clearings and forest edges from southern Mexico to south to Argentina. Boat-billed Flycatchers have a striking facial pattern with a black crown, yellow coronal patch, a white supercilium and black lores; this facial pattern is shared with species of several other genera of large-bodied neotropical flycatchers. True to their name, Boat-billed Flycatchers have a broad and heavy bill. Boat-billed Flycatchers generally forage in pairs or in small family groups at medium to high elevations in the forest canopy. These flycatchers, sally-glean to catch insects or to snatch a piece of fruit. The Boat-billed Flycatcher is resident in most of its range, but some populations in southern Brazil and northern Argentina are thought to be migratory. [http://neotropical.birds.cornell.edu/portal/species/overview?p_p_spp=477996].

Hangnest Tody-Tyrant (Hemitriccus nidipendulus)

Found from the state of Sergipe south to São Paulo, the evocatively named Hangnest Tody-Tyrant is endemic to coastal eastern Brazil and the Atlantic Forest biome, where its wide range and general abundance have, to some extent, insulated the species from the dramatic and devastating habitat destruction that has placed the futures of many biota in the balance. The Hangnest Tody-Tyrant is relatively easily separated from other tody-tyrants within its range using plumage characters; its upperparts are a uniform greenish-yellow, there is a pale loral mark, and the underparts are rather clean white, while the species’ irides are prominently and distinctively pale, at least in adults. The species unsurprisingly takes its name from the domed, pyrifrom nest that is suspended from a narrow branch, although its basic form and structure are actually copied by the vast majority, if not all, of the Hangnest Tody-Tyrant’s congeners. [http://neotropical.birds.cornell.edu/portal/species/overview?p_p_spp=444201].

Streamer-tailed Tyrant (Gubernetes yetapa)

The Streamer-tailed Tyrant is a distinctive resident of Buriti palm groves and seasonally wet grassland from western Bolivia to central Brazil and to northeastern Argentina. Overall these birds appear pale gray with black wings that are highlighted by a patch of cinnamon at the base of the primaries. Aptly named, the Streamer-tailed Tyrant has a long deeply forked tail. Streamer-tailed Tyrants often perch conspicuously on the tops of low trees and bushes and utter a harsh repeated "wurreep" call. They forage by flying low over marshy areas before pouncing to the ground to catch large arthropods. During courtship, the members of a pair of Streamer-tailed Tyrants perch 10-50 cm apart facing one another, while each bird alternately lowers their head and raises and fans their long tail. The birds then proceed to lower their tail and raise their heads while raising their wings and calling continuously.

Pearly-vented Tody-tyrant (Hemitriccus margaritaceiventer)

The Pearly-vented Tody-Tyrant is small, drab, long billed flycatcher of dry scrub and deciduous forest. It occurs in northwestern South America, and also in central and eastern South America from Bolivia and Argentina east through Brazil. There also are isolated populations in Peru. Pearly-vented Tody-Tyrants are olive-brown above with a gray crown, whitish lores, and a reddish brown bill, and are white below with indistinct gray streaking. These birds frequently forage in pairs at low to medium heights in shrubs, pausing briefly to glean insects from the undersides of leaves. Pearly-vented Tody-Tyrant nests consist of a hanging elongated purse made of grass and plant fibers suspended 0.5-3 m off the ground from a drooping branch or herbaceous plant. [http://neotropical.birds.cornell.edu/portal/species/overview?p_p_spp=444361]

Common Tody-Flycatcher (Todirostrum cinereum)

The Common Tody-Flycatcher is a common and widespread species of secondary forest and forest edge; it is distributed from southern Mexico to south to northeastern Argentina, but is absent from much of the Amazon Basin. Male Common Tody-Flycatchers have glossy black forecrowns, slate gray hindcrowns, olive upperparts, black wings and bright yellow underparts; the iris usually is yellow. Common Tody-Flycatchers forage in pairs or small family groups in dense vegetation close to the ground or in the open mid-level canopy of trees. They catch prey by gleaning or in short forward and upward sallies, always catching prey with an audible snap. Like other species of tody-tyrant, the Common Tody-Flycatcher builds a hanging pouch shaped nests 1 to 5 m off the ground made out of plant material and bound with spiderweb.

Planalto Tyrannulet (Phyllomyias fasciatus)

The Planalto Tyrannulet is a very unassuming bird in terms of its plumage, which is generally rather similar to that of most other Phyllomyias tyrannulets. Principally olive-green above, with pale yellowish underparts, there are few obvious features apart from a slight pale supercilium and two pale wing bars. Voice, typically a soft trisyllabic whistle, is often as good a clue as any as to the species’ presence. It is found from northeast Argentina and eastern Paraguay, in the south, north to northeast Brazil, with localized populations in parts of eastern Amazonia, and in terms of habitat the Planalto Tyrannulet prefers humid forest and tall second growth below c.1800 m.

White-crested Tyrannulet (Serpophaga subcristata)

The White-crested Tyrranulet is widespread east of the Andes in the southern Cone, found from C Bolivia to E Brazil and south to the northern edge of Patagonia in Argentina. This is a small flycatcher which tends to perch in a rather horizontal manner and often half-cocks its tail as it forages or when excited. It has a grayish crown with a white central crown stripe that is usually relatively easy to see in the field.

Plain-crested Elaenia (Elaenia cristata)

The Plain-crested Elaenia is a resident of open savanna and scrubby thickets from Venezuela south to central Brazil; there also are isolated populations in Colombia, Peru and Bolivia. A small drab elaenia, the Plain-crested Elaenia has olive-brown upperparts, two white wing bars, and a pale yellow belly and undertail coverts. The crown feathers of the Plain-crested Elaenia are greatly elongated and form a conspicuous crest, although the crest lacks the white coronal patch of other species of elaenia. Plain-crested Elaenias often perch, with upright posture, in the crowns of shrubs and trees. Plain-crested Elaenias primarily forage on insects and berries by perch-gleaning or by flutter-gleaning. [Source: http://neotropical.birds.cornell.edu/portal/species/overview?p_p_spp=427401].

Suiriri Flycatcher (Suiriri suiriri)

Of very widespread distribution across the eastern half of South America, mainly from northeast Brazil (and locally even further north) to the Bolivian Andes and northeastern Argentina, this flycatcher poses a complex taxonomic issue. Only recently was the cryptically-plumaged Chapada Flycatcher (Suiriri islerorum) appreciated to be a different species and described accordingly, while the status of some of the subspecies currently placed within the Suiriri Flycatcher remain open to further questions. This inhabitant of chaco woodland, cerrado, and other open areas is often fairly common and is easily identified, especially by voice, despite its unremarkable plumage. It principally feeds on insects and small fruits, which are usually gleaned while perched. The nest is cup-shaped and three eggs constitute a typical clutch. Some post-breeding movements have been reported, but their geographical scope, and their frequency, remains to be elucidated.

Yellow-lored Tody-Flycatcher (Todirostrum poliocephalum)

It is a species of bird in the Tyrannidae family, endemic to Brazil. Measures an average of 8.8 centimeters and weighs an average of 6.8 grams. It is an insectivorous bird, feeding on small arthropods. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and heavily degraded former forest, including urban parks and gardens. Spends most of the time amongst foliage and is hard to be observed due to its diminutive size. Makes, however, a conspicuous round nest with straw and leaves, hanging from branches at a small height from the ground and with a side entrance. Lays from two to three eggs each nesting season, which are incubated solely by the female.

Sooty Tyrannulet (Serpophaga nigricans)

The Sooty Tyrannulet is a water-associated tyrant that is distributed broadly across southeastern South America. This tiny flycatcher is dark gray-brown above and paler gray below, with two dusky wingbars on each wing and a white crown patch, usually hidden unless agitated. The species is highly associated with water, typically small streams or ditches in agricultural or otherwise open areas below 1000 meters in elevation. Sooty Tyrannulets are always moving around within their habitat, and typically flare and jerk their tails upwards when alert or alarmed. [Source: http://neotropical.birds.cornell.edu/portal/species/overview?p_p_spp=429001].

Cattle Tyrant (Machetornis rixosa)

The Cattle Tyrant is a resident of dry open savanna and pastureland. There are two major regions where this species occurs: in easternmost Panama and in northern South America Colombia and in Venezuela; and in central and eastern South America, from Bolivia south to Argentina and east to northeastern Brazil. The Cattle Tyrant is a long legged and short winged flycatcher with brown upperparts, a gray crown, a thin dusky eye stripe, and yellow underparts. Cattle Tyrants usually forage in pairs or small groups on the ground where they run rapidly with upright posture in pursuit of terrestrial insects. As the name implies, Cattle Tyrants sometimes perch on the backs of cattle and horses, making quick sallies to the ground or in the air to catch insects flushed by the livestock. During the breeding season these flycatchers build a bulky ball-shaped nest of grass high above ground. [Source: http://neotropical.birds.cornell.edu/portal/species/overview?p_p_spp=471436.]

Social Flycatcher (Myiozetetes similis)

The Social Flycatcher is a widespread and familiar member of the avifauna throughout much of the Neotropics. It can be quite common near water in forest and edge habitats ranging from northern Argentina north to Mexico. Similar to other stocky yellow, black and white flycatchers, Social Flycatcher is medium sized with brown upperparts and tail, a short, decurved bill, bold black and white striped head, and yellow underparts that run from the white throat to the undertail coverts. The species is easily detected, sits out in the open and gives loud, harsh and sometimes chattering calls.

Cliff Flycatcher (Hirundinea ferruginea)

The Cliff Flycatcher is a slender tyrannid of forest edge and rocky outcroppings Guyana, Suriname and Venezuela south along the Andes to northwestern Argentina, and also is found from northeastern Brazil south to northeastern Argentina. The Cliff Flycatcher has blackish-brown upperparts, mottled white cheeks and supericilia, and a cinnamon throat and underparts. Reminiscent of a swallow in both its shape and manner of flight, the Cliff Flycatcher catches insects by making long powerful aerial sallies from a perch on a rocky outcropping, cliff face or overhanging branch. The Cliff Flycatcher is well adapted to human altered environments, and in São Paulo these birds nest on apartment blocks and high-rise buildings. Southern breeders migrate north during the austral winter. (Source: http://neotropical.birds.cornell.edu/portal/species/overview?p_p_spp=451756).

Gray-backed Tachuri (Polystictus superciliaris)

The Gray-backed Tachuri is a rare species of flycatcher endemic to eastern Brazil. A tiny, drab flycatcher, this species is gray-headed with a white supercilium and brown back, largely orange-buff underparts, and drab wings with faint brownish wingbars. The Gray-backed Tachuri favors open grassland habitat between 1100 and 1600 meters on sparsely vegetated serras in its tiny range in interior eastern Brazil. The species can often be located by its weak, stuttering trill of a song.

Long-tailed Tyrant (Colonia colonus)

The Long-tailed Tyrant is a distinctive flycatcher that occurs at the edge of montane evergreen forest and of lowland forest from Honduras south to western Colombia and western Ecuador, and from southeastern Ecuador south to Brazil, Paraguay and northeastern Argentina; there also is a population in northeastern South America. Long-tailed Tyrants are dull black with a white crown and rump, and sport a pair of elongated central tail feathers that extend up to 13 cm beyond the rest of the tail. Long-tailed Tyrants feed exclusively on flying insects, especially stingless bees. Insects are captured by making quick aerial sallies from a high exposed snag or branch. The Long-tailed Tyrant is resident throughout most of its range, although the populations in southern Brazil perhaps are migratory.

Streaked Flycatcher (Myiodynastes maculatus)

Streaked Flycatcher is a widespread inhabitant of evergreen and open second growth forest from southeastern Mexico south to Argentina. As its name implies, the Streaked Flycatcher has streaking across most of its back and underparts, along with a cinnamon tail and crown. These noisy flycatchers often are seen sallying for insects from a perch or gleaning insects and berries from canopy foliage. Streaked Flycatcher is resident in much of its wide range, but both the northernmost and southernmost breeding populations are migratory. Birds that breed from Mexico south to Honduras migrate south to Panama and northern South America, while populations that nest in southern South America migrate north to Colombia and northern South America after the breeding season.

Yellow Tyrannulet (Capsiempis flaveola)

The Yellow Tyrannulet is a unique yellowish flycatcher with a patchy distribution in southern Central and northern South America. With olive upperparts, yellow underparts, a long tail, and horizontal posture it resembles the doraditos (Pseudocolopteryx), except for its yellower face and neck. Its calls are bubbly and cheerful and include series of whistled notes and sputtery trills. It forages actively for arthropods in dense vegetation, generally in pairs or small groups. It avoids tall forest, preferring openings and edges with copious amounts of dense vegetation at low levels. It shows a particular fondness for bamboo.

Great Kiskadee (Pitangus sulphuratus)

The Great Kiskadee is a large and strikingly colored flycatcher that inhabits much of Central and South America. It has a black crown with a yellow coronal patch and a broad white supercilium that extends from its forehead to its nape. The kiskadee's olive-brown wings are set off by cinnamon wing coverts and bright yellow underparts. Great Kiskadees reside in a variety of habitats from forest edges to grasslands to busy residential areas. These birds can often been seen hawking insects from an open perch or dropping to the ground feeding on insects and small reptiles. Great Kiskadees have increased in both range and abundance in recent times, due largely to the creation of open areas where closed forest previously existed.

White-headed Marsh-Tyrant (Arundinicola leucocephala) Female

The White-headed Marsh-Tyrant is a widespread species in tropical South America though absent from much of Amazonia. Sexually dimorphic, the male’s plumage consists of a stark white head and black body making it one of the most unique tyrant-flycatchers. The species has a strong ecological preference for slow moving or stagnant marshlands where it perches on reeds or small shrubs and sallies for flying insects. Its nest is a large, messy, globular construction of grass and feathers with a side entrance. Conspicuous and distinctive, the male White-headed Marsh-Tyrant is not likely to be missed or mis-identified in appropriate habitat, although the female should be compared with species of the genus Fluvicola.

Yellow-browed Tyrant (Satrapa icterophrys)

The Yellow-browed Tyrant is a common inhabitant of pastureland, forest edge and scrubland in Venezuela and from Central Brazil south to Argentina. The male Yellow-browed Tyrant is greyish-olive above, with a bright yellow supercilia and underparts and a dusky black tail and wings. Females are paler overall and have olive mixed in with the yellow on the breast. A quiet flycatcher, the Yellow-browed Tyrant is often encountered perched singly on low vegetation. Yellow-browed Tyrants capture their insect prey by making aerial sallies or gleaning from foliage and bark. Yellow-browed Tyrants are austral migrants that move from their southern breeding grounds to areas closer to the equator.

Yellow-lored Tody-Flycatcher (Todirostrum poliocephalum)

It is a species of bird in the Tyrannidae family, endemic to Brazil. Measures an average of 8.8 centimeters and weighs an average of 6.8 grams. It is an insectivorous bird, feeding on small arthropods. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and heavily degraded former forest, including urban parks and gardens. Spends most of the time amongst foliage and is hard to be observed due to its diminutive size. Makes, however, a conspicuous round nest with straw and leaves, hanging from branches at a small height from the ground and with a side entrance. Lays from two to three eggs each nesting season, which are incubated solely by the female.

Brown-crested Flycatcher (Myiarchus tyrannulus)

The Brown-crested Flycatcher occupies a variety of woodland and scrub habitats throughout its broad distribution; this species breeds as far north as southern Utah in the United States, and south to northeastern Argentina. The Brown-crested Flycatcher is a large member of the genus Myiarchus with conspicuous rufous on the tail, two broad white wing bars, grayish-brown upperparts, a pale gray throat and breast and yellow lower underparts. During the breeding season these flycatchers maintain a diet exclusively of insects and other arthropods. Brown-crested Flycatchers are more omnivorous during the nonbreeding season when they will eat fruits as well as arthropods. Brown-crested Flycatchers are migratory at both the northern and southern reaches of their range. Birds in the United States and northern Mexico migrate south, and winter from central Mexico south to El Salvador. The migratory patterns of the southernmost populations of Brown-crested Flycatcher are not well documented, but they probably winter in the southwestern Amazon Basin.

Vermilion Flycatcher

Príncipe (Pyrocephalus rubinus) The Vermilion Flycatcher is a vibrantly colored inhabitant of open woodland and pastureland from the American Southwest to south to central Argentina. Male Vermilion Flycatchers have a bushy brilliant red crown and underparts, and a slate black mask, upperparts and tail. Females differ greatly in plumage from males, with a grayish-brown crown and upperparts, dark lores, a whitish supercilium, and white breast and underparts with fine gray streaks. In central Peru, especially within the city of Lima, there is an unusual local dusky color morph, that occurs in both sexes; this dusky morph exists alongside Vermilion Flycatchers with the standard plumage. Vermilion Flycatchers often perch with erect posture in the lower branches of a tree or shrub. They frequently wag their tail, and sally out to catch insects in the air or on the ground. Vermilion Flycatchers have a variety of different migratory patterns depending on their breeding range. Populations from the southern United States and northern Mexico migrate south to Central America, while populations from Argentina and Paraguay migrate as far north as Colombia during the austral winter.

Great Kiskadee

The Great Kiskadee is a large and strikingly colored flycatcher that inhabits much of Central and South America. It has a black crown with a yellow coronal patch and a broad white supercilium that extends from its forehead to its nape. The kiskadee's olive-brown wings are set off by cinnamon wing coverts and bright yellow underparts. Great Kiskadees reside in a variety of habitats from forest edges to grasslands to busy residential areas. These birds can often been seen hawking insects from an open perch or dropping to the ground feeding on insects and small reptiles. Great Kiskadees have increased in both range and abundance in recent times, due largely to the creation of open areas where closed forest previously existed.

Lesser Kiskadee

The Lesser Kiskadee is a medium-sized, colorful flycatcher of much of northern South American. Found from Panama south through the river lowlands of the northern half of the country, it also has a disjunct distribution along the east coast of Brazil; it inhabits shrubby areas near water below 500 meters in elevation. Overall, it appears like a much smaller version of the very familiar Great Kiskadee, being rufescent brown above and yellow below with a black head marked by a broad white superciliary, white throat, yellow coronal patch, and a slim but sturdy black bill. Lesser Kiskadee does not sound anything like the familiar "kiss my rear" of the Great Kiskadee, making nasal, buzzy, slurred calls instead. As an additional difference, Lesser Kiskadee builds a simple cup for its nest, completely unlike the large basket nest of the Great Kiskadee. Source: http://neotropical.birds.cornell.edu/portal/species/overview?p_p_spp=477676.

Gray Monjita (Xolmis cinereus)

The Gray Monjita occupies grasslands from Suriname south through central South America to southeastern Peru and to Argentina. As the name implies, the Gray Monjita is predominantly gray, with a white supercilium, loral stripe and throat; a black submoustachial stripe; black wings; and a white belly. The Gray Monjita often perches conspicuously on fences, bushes and wires, dropping to the ground to catch prey. The Gray Monjita is a fast graceful flier, and has the interesting habit of often flying with its legs dangling. These flycatchers are well adapted to human disturbance, and are often seen perched in city centers sitting on buildings and television antennae. Gray Monjitas are mostly resident, but southern populations are migratory during the colder months.

Yellow-bellied Elaenia

The Yellow-bellied Elaenia is a medium sized, widespread elaenia found from southeastern Mexico south to northeastern Argentina. Generally Yellow-bellied Elaenias are brownish olive above with two white wing bars, a pale gray breast, and pale yellow belly. Yellow-bellied Elaenia have a conspicuous bushy crest that often is raised when the bird calls, revealing a white coronal patch. These flycatchers inhabit a variety of woodland habitats as well as scrub and savanna, and feed on fruits and insects.

Rufous Casiornis

The Rufous Casiornis has a wide range over central South America, from northern Argentina in the south north as far as the Amazon. Although it is generally considered to be an austral migrant to the majority of its perceived Amazonian range, some records from this region are from the austral summer, posing the question as to whether some birds might spend the whole year, and even breed, well north of the main breeding range. This is a mid-sized tyrant flycatcher with largely rufous plumage, relieved by slightly darker wings, and paler posterior underparts. The bill is largely pale with a darker tip.

Yellow-lored Tody-Flycatcher

It is a species of bird in the Tyrannidae family, endemic to Brazil. Measures an average of 8.8 centimeters and weighs an average of 6.8 grams. It is an insectivorous bird, feeding on small arthropods. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and heavily degraded former forest, including urban parks and gardens. Spends most of the time amongst foliage and is hard to be observed due to its diminutive size. Makes, however, a conspicuous round nest with straw and leaves, hanging from branches at a small height from the ground and with a side entrance. Lays from two to three eggs each nesting season, which are incubated solely by the female.

Fork-tailed Flycatcher (Tyrannus savana)

The Fork-tailed Flycatcher is a distinctive inhabitant of grassland and open terrain from southern Mexico to south to Argentina. The Fork-tailed Flycatcher is mostly black above with white underparts, and, as the name implies, has an extremely long forked tail. This flycatcher, which is a member of the kingbird genus Tyrannus, often perches prominently on the top of fence posts or shrubs; from such conspicuous perches, the flycatcher sallies after insects or hover-gleans to feed on fruit. The southern populations are migratory while populations in southern Mexico are resident. During migration Fork-tailed Flycatchers are very gregarious and may roost in flocks of up to 10,000 individuals.

White-crested Tyrannulet (Serpophaga subcristata)

The White-crested Tyrranulet is widespread east of the Andes in the southern Cone, found from C Bolivia to E Brazil and south to the northern edge of Patagonia in Argentina. This is a small flycatcher which tends to perch in a rather horizontal manner and often half-cocks its tail as it forages or when excited. It has a grayish crown with a white central crown stripe that is usually relatively easy to see in the field.

Yellow-bellied Elaenia (Elaenia flavogaster)

The Yellow-bellied Elaenia is a medium sized, widespread elaenia found from southeastern Mexico south to northeastern Argentina. Generally Yellow-bellied Elaenias are brownish olive above with two white wing bars, a pale gray breast, and pale yellow belly. Yellow-bellied Elaenia have a conspicuous bushy crest that often is raised when the bird calls, revealing a white coronal patch. These flycatchers inhabit a variety of woodland habitats as well as scrub and savanna, and feed on fruits and insects.

Southern Scrub-Flycatcher

Southern Scrub-Flycatcher is distributed from central Peru south and east to eastern Brazil, Uruguay, and northern Argentina, with some birds moving north post-breeding, reaching regularly to northern Peru and central Amazonian Brazil, and even as far as southeast Colombia. However, the true extent of the species’ movements might be significantly underestimated, due to the species’ relatively inconspicuous behavior. During the breeding season the birds inhabit arid scrub and open deciduous woodland. The Southern Scrub-Flycatcher is unremarkable to look at, being mainly grayish brown above, with a very slight pale supercilium and grayish wing bars, a pale gray breast, becoming more yellowish ventrally. [http://neotropical.birds.cornell.edu/portal/species/overview?p_p_spp=437961].

Fork-tailed Flycatcher (Tyrannus savana)

The Fork-tailed Flycatcher is a distinctive inhabitant of grassland and open terrain from southern Mexico to south to Argentina. The Fork-tailed Flycatcher is mostly black above with white underparts, and, as the name implies, has an extremely long forked tail. This flycatcher, which is a member of the kingbird genus Tyrannus, often perches prominently on the top of fence posts or shrubs; from such conspicuous perches, the flycatcher sallies after insects or hover-gleans to feed on fruit. The southern populations are migratory while populations in southern Mexico are resident. During migration Fork-tailed Flycatchers are very gregarious and may roost in flocks of up to 10,000 individuals.

Masked Water-Tyrant

The Masked Water-Tyrant occupies riparian thickets and scrubland in eastern Brazil from Rio Grande do Norte south to Rio de Janeiro, and also occurs in western Ecuador and adjacent northwestern Peru. The Masked Water-Tyrant is a handsome white bird with a contrasting black eyestripe, black wings and tail. The Masked Water-Tyrant usually is found singly or in pairs foraging on or near the ground along waterways and ponds. These flycatchers often run along aquatic vegetation, making short aerial sallies or quick dashes to catch passing insects.

Yellow-browed Tyrant

The Yellow-browed Tyrant is a common inhabitant of pastureland, forest edge and scrubland in Venezuela and from Central Brazil south to Argentina. The male Yellow-browed Tyrant is greyish-olive above, with a bright yellow supercilia and underparts and a dusky black tail and wings. Females are paler overall and have olive mixed in with the yellow on the breast. A quiet flycatcher, the Yellow-browed Tyrant is often encountered perched singly on low vegetation. Yellow-browed Tyrants capture their insect prey by making aerial sallies or gleaning from foliage and bark. Yellow-browed Tyrants are austral migrants that move from their southern breeding grounds to areas closer to the equator.

Yellow-lored Tody-Flycatcher (Todirostrum poliocephalum)

It is a species of bird in the Tyrannidae family, endemic to Brazil. Measures an average of 8.8 centimeters and weighs an average of 6.8 grams. It is an insectivorous bird, feeding on small arthropods.

Streaked Flycatcher

Streaked Flycatcher is a widespread inhabitant of evergreen and open second growth forest from southeastern Mexico south to Argentina. As its name implies, the Streaked Flycatcher has streaking across most of its back and underparts, along with a cinnamon tail and crown. These noisy flycatchers often are seen sallying for insects from a perch or gleaning insects and berries from canopy foliage. Streaked Flycatcher is resident in much of its wide range, but both the northernmost and southernmost breeding populations are migratory. Birds that breed from Mexico south to Honduras migrate south to Panama and northern South America, while populations that nest in southern South America migrate north to Colombia and northern South America after the breeding season.

Planalto Tyrannulet

The Planalto Tyrannulet is a very unassuming bird in terms of its plumage, which is generally rather similar to that of most other Phyllomyias tyrannulets. Principally olive-green above, with pale yellowish underparts, there are few obvious features apart from a slight pale supercilium and two pale wing bars. Voice, typically a soft trisyllabic whistle, is often as good a clue as any as to the species’ presence. It is found from northeast Argentina and eastern Paraguay, in the south, north to northeast Brazil, with localized populations in parts of eastern Amazonia, and in terms of habitat the Planalto Tyrannulet prefers humid forest and tall second growth below c.1800 m.

Sharp-tailed Tyrant

In life this attractive little flycatcher is one that is much sharper looking than the books make it out to be. It is a small 10 cm) and slim flycatcher with a long narrow tail. Sharp-tailed Tyrants have short, relatively thick black bills and a well patterned face with a dark cap, bright white supercilium and blackish mask; the upperparts are striped brown and tawny, and there is a vivid tawny wash to the breast sides, flanks and the sides of the face. This is a flycatcher of conservation concern that is declining at a noticeable rate. It is found in tall dry native grassland, campo cerrado habitat. This habitat is quickly disappearing due to conversion into soybean fields, ranching, or even pine and eucalyptus plantations. The preferred habitat is “old growth” grassland, where Loudetia grasses reach 2m in height, not areas that are burned annually as is often the case in parts of its range.

White-rumped Monjita (Xolmis velatus)

The White-rumped Monjita is a resident of cerrado and grassland in central Brazil, Bolivia and Paraguay. The White-rumped Monjita is mostly white, with a pearly gray hindneck, brownish-grey back, black wings and a black tail. White-rumped Monjitas usually are found in pairs, often perched conspicuously on fence posts, wires or bushes. These flycatchers catch insects by dropping to the ground or making aerial sallies from a perch. The White-rumped Monjita is a cavity nester, but does not excavate its own nests. Instead, this flycatcher nests in the abandoned burrows of Campo Flickers (Colaptes campestris) or Orange-fronted Parakeets (Aratinga canicularis), often found in large ant hills.

Southern Antpipit (Corythopis delalandi)

The Southern Antpipit is a terrestrial flycacther of the Atlantic rainforest of southeast Brazil, easterrn Paraguay, and northeast Argentina. This species has a distinctive foraging strategy, walking along the ground and looking upwards at the undersides of leaves for invertebrates. The Southern Antpipit has a distinctive look for a flycatcher, with thick, black streaks on white underparts, and chocolate-brown upperparts, and a white throat and eye-ring. The only other similar species in South America is the Ringed Antpipit (Corythopis torquatus) of the amazon basin, from which it differs vocally. The Southern Antpipit inhabits primary and mature secondary forests, and can be found in the occasional small, degraded woodlot. The Southern Antpipit does not associate with mixed flocks, and is heard more often than seen, but can be approachable once found. [Source: http://neotropical.birds.cornell.edu/portal/species/overview?p_p_spp=439881].

Amazonian Tyrannulet (Inezia subflava)

Distributed in riverine forest and scrub, including on islands, from southwest Venezuela and adjacent southeast Colombia south across Amazonia to northern Bolivia, the Amazonian Tyrannulet is a diminutive tyrant-flycatcher perhaps best distinguished by its prominent white supraloral and eye-ring, and very ‘spotty’ double wingbars. Most of the rest of the plumage is olive-green to pale yellow. The species is typically found in pairs, usually low above the ground, their tails held cocked. However, to date little else has been recorded concerning this tyrannulet’s behavior and biology. The Amazonian Tyrannulet was previously considered conspecific with the allopatric Pale-tipped Tyrannulet (Inezia caudata) of northern South America, but they are well separated by vocalizations as well as, to a lesser extent, morphology.

Rufous Casiornis (Casiornis rufus)

The Rufous Casiornis has a wide range over central South America, from northern Argentina in the south north as far as the Amazon. Although it is generally considered to be an austral migrant to the majority of its perceived Amazonian range, some records from this region are from the austral summer, posing the question as to whether some birds might spend the whole year, and even breed, well north of the main breeding range. This is a mid-sized tyrant flycatcher with largely rufous plumage, relieved by slightly darker wings, and paler posterior underparts. The bill is largely pale with a darker tip.

White-headed Marsh Tyrant (Arundinicola leucocephala) Male

The White-headed Marsh-Tyrant is a widespread species in tropical South America though absent from much of Amazonia. Sexually dimorphic, the male’s plumage consists of a stark white head and black body making it one of the most unique tyrant-flycatchers. The species has a strong ecological preference for slow moving or stagnant marshlands where it perches on reeds or small shrubs and sallies for flying insects. Its nest is a large, messy, globular construction of grass and feathers with a side entrance. Conspicuous and distinctive, the male White-headed Marsh-Tyrant is not likely to be missed or mis-identified in appropriate habitat, although the female should be compared with species of the genus Fluvicola.

White-throated Kingbird (Tyrannus albogularis)

The White-throated Kingbird is an inhabitant of gallery forest and open savanna from Venezuela south to Brazil western and Bolivia. The White-throated Kingbird has a pale grey head with a semi-concealed yellow coronal patch, a dusky-black eyeline, olive-green upperparts, bright yellow underparts and a dull blackish-brown tail and wings. When foraging, the White-throated Kingbird sallys fors insects from a perch 3 to 4 m above the ground. An austral migrant, the White-throated Kingbird migrates to the western Amazon as far north as Colombia during the southern winter.